人間と生活環境 vol.01

長田 泰公

An Overview of Sixteen Years of Symposia
on Man - Thermal Environment System

Yasutaka Osada
Consultant of the Institute of Public Health

The symposium on man-thermal environment systems was organized and its first meeting was held in August 1977. Since then, 16 annual meetings, including a memorable inter -national meeting in 1992, were held successfully. This paper reviews and analyses the papers submitted at these meetings and suggests further research be conducted in certain aspects of such papers.
(Receiued: June 15. 1994 Accepted: July 26. 1994)
Key words: eview, thermal condition, clothing, house, comfort

キーワード 総説、温熱環境、衣服、住居、快適性
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 28/33, 1994


森本 武利

Human Adaptation to Changing Environ ment

Taketoshi MORIMOTO
Department of Physiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine

Adaptability of human being to hot environment was discussed from the incidence of heat casualties, the present knowledge of thermoregulation, and from the view point of evolution. The incidence of heat casualties in Japan exceeds 150 per year during hot summer days,and the number of incidence correlates with the number of days with minimum temperature higher than 25 degree C. About 40% of the incidence are found in elderly people over 65, which suggests that elderly people are more susceptible to heat stress with less reserve capacity to tolerate heat. A guide line for the prevention of heat casualty was discussed based on the regulatory mechanism of body temperature, circulation,and body fluid. Human can tolerate the cold more easily than to heat using both behavioral and physiological thermoregulation. On the other hand,it is necessary to elaborate circulatory function and body fluid to tolerate to heat load,which leads to heat casualty more easily. This fact, together with the fact that human being has evolved through ice ages impose the necessity to brake global warming.
(Receiued: March 30, 1994 Accepted: July 26, 1994)
Key words: heat casualty, environmental adaptation, evolution of homo sapiens, global envionment, global warming

キーワード 高温障害、ヒトの適応能、ヒトの進化、地球環境、地球の温暖化
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 34/39, 1994


堀越 哲美

A Review on Human - Thermal Environment System Studies Related to Architecture and Built Environment in Japan

Department of Architecture, Nagoya Institute of Technology

A history of thermal comfort studies and Environmental Design based on interaction between human and thermal environment in Japan was reviewed from the viewpoint of architec -ture and built environment. In earlier period researches in this field were strong by influenced by the hygiene. After World War 11 original researches have been conducted in this field. In the past five years papers and projects increase year by year. However, most of the latest studies aim on practical applications and basic research has gradually decreased. More researches based on the human heat balance equation are desirable in the neer future.
(Received: April 18, 1994 Accepted: July 26, 1994)
Key words: history, Japan, thermal comfort, physiology - psychology, human heat balance

キーワード 歴史、熱的快適性、生理心理、人体熱収支
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 40/45, 1994

Phisiological and Subjective Responses in the Young and Elderly
during Outdoor Exercise in the Four Seasons


Tadakatsu OHNAKA*, Yutaka TOCHIHARA* and Kazuyo TSUZUKI**
*Department of Physiological Hygiene, The Institute of Public Health
**Human Environment Department, National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and subjective responses of the elderly during outdoor exercise in comparison with those of the young in the four seasons. The subjects were 9 elderly people (65 to 85 years) and 8 young (20 to 22 years). They played Gate Ball (GB) games in the morning in the four seasons. During the GB games, blood pressure, heart rate and skin temperatures were measured and thermal sensations were recorded. The dry and wet bulb temperatures, wind velocity and globe temperature were also recorded every 30 minutes. In the cold environments or winter season, the elderly had a tendency to have higher skin temperatures and voted "warmer" during the outdoor exercises. The elderly had higher blood pressure in winter and a significant negative relationship between systolic blood pressure and mean skin temperature was found, but not in the young. There were few differences in physiological and subjective responses between the age groups in warm conditions. These results suggested that greater physiological strains were observed among the elderly in the cold thermal conditions.
(Recieved: June 4, 1994, Accepted: July 26, 1994)
Keywords elderly, outdoor exercise, body temperature, blood pressure, thermal sensation

キーワード 高齢者、屋外運動、体温、血圧、温冷感
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 46/50, 1994


久保 博子、磯田 憲生、梁瀬 度子

Seasonal Variations of Air Temperature for the Thermal Comfort

Hiroko KUBO, Norio ISODA and Takuko YANASE
Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women's University

We investigated seasonal variations of clothing, thermal sensation and thermal comfort by conducting experiments on females during all the seasons. The experiments were conducted in climate chambers. Air temperatures were 16℃ , 20℃, 24℃, 28PC and 32℃, and relative humidity was 50%. Air velocity was still air ( <0.15m/s), and mean radiant temperature was equal to air temperature. Subjects were 71 healthy college aged females. They did some sedentary works in casual wear which they were dressed in, and after the experiment clo value was calculated. The subjects were exposed to different conditions for 60 minutes. The subjects were asked to report thermal sensation on the 9 category scale and thermal comfort on the 7 category scale. The ex -periments were conducted seven times from October 1986 to August 1987. The results were as fol -lows: -
(1) The mean clo values of the subjects were about O.84 clo in winter and 0.4 clo in summer.
(2) The air temperatures that the subjects reported to be under thermal neutral conditions were 22 ℃ in winter and 28 ℃ in summer.
(3) The range of air temperatures that they reported to be comfortable conditions were from 20 ℃ to 28 ℃ in winter and from 22 ℃ to 30℃ in summer. Thus they felt warm (atatakai) in winter and cool (suzushii) in summer.
(Received: June 5, 1994 Accepted; July 26, 1994)
key words: thermal comfort, seasonal variation, clothing, thermal sensation

(1) 被験者の着用していた平均着衣は冬期は0.84clo、夏期は0.4cloであった。
(2) 温熱的中性申告の得られた温度は冬期には22℃で夏期には28℃であった。
(3) 快適側の申告した時の温度は冬期は20℃〜28℃、夏期は22℃〜30℃で、その時冬期は「暖かい」と申告し、夏期は「涼しい」と申告した。
キーワード 温熱的快適性、季節差、着衣量、温冷感
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 51/57, 1994


竹森 利和*、庄司 祐子**、平田 耕造***、中島 健**
*大阪ガス(株)  **神戸大学工学部  ***神戸女子大学家政学部

The Prediction of Skin Temperature Distribution
by an AVA Human Thermal System

Toshikazu TAKEMORI*, Yuko SHOJI**, Kozo HIRATA***
and Tsuyoshi NAKAJIMA**
*Osaha Gus Co.,Ltd. **Faculty of Engineering. Kobe University
***Fuculty of Home Economics. Kobe Women's University

We have developed a human thermal system (AVA model) for the prediction of thermal comfort. The distinguishing feature of this system is a more precise model description of heat transfer by blood flow (i.e. the introduction of arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA) of the extremities and a dual vascular network) than conventional human thermal systems. The results are the following:
(1) The experimental verification with three different steady thermal condi-tions (22 ℃ , 28 ℃ and 34 ℃ ) suggests that the AVA model can well simulate body temperature profiles.
(2) The visualized results demonstrate that the model predictions such as tissue temperature and blood temperature distributions are considered physiologically plausible.
(Received: May 31, 1994 Accepted: July 26, 1994)
Key words: human thermal system, thermal comfort, thermoregulation, AVA, mathematical model

(1) 本モデルは中高温域(室温28℃〜34℃)における抹消部の皮膚温等を精度良く予測でき、全身の皮膚温分布予測に有効である。
(2) 本モデルは、大きな環境変化(室温22℃と34℃では12℃差)に対しても、深部温をほぼ一定に保つことができ人体熱モデルとして適切に機能する。
(3) 結果の可視化により、計算された皮膚温分布および深部温が人体生理の面から妥当であると考えられる。
キーワード 人体熱モデル、熱的快適性、体温調節、動静脈吻合血管、数理モデル
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 58/63, 1994

Reduction of Clo Value with Increased Air Velocity

Shin-ichi TANABE, Yae HASEBE and Tatsuaki TANAKA
Department of Human Environmental Engineering, Ochanomizu University

Experimental results on the reduction in thermal resistance under increased air velocity on a standard summer clothing ensemble as well as the same ensemble plus a sweater or a wind breaker are described. A seated thermal manikin was exposed in a climatic chamber to different air velocities. It was found that the basic thermal insulation of the summer ensemble was reduced 250/0 at air velocity of I .O In/ s. The basic clothing insulation with a sweater was changed much more by increased air velocity than that with a wind breaker. The equivalent temperature taking into account the reduction of clothing insulation was derived based on heat loss from a manikin.
(Received June 2, 1994, Accepted July 26, 1994)
Keywords thermal manikin, basic clothing insulation, air velocity, thermal comfort

キーワード 着衣熱抵抗、クロ値、サーマルマネキン、気流、作用温度
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 64/67, 1994

Discussion on Comfort or Pleasantness as Criterion
in the Environment Evaluation


Naoki MATSUBARA and Yoshihito KURAZUMI
Department of Housing and Environmental Design, Faculty of
Living Science, Kyoto Prefectural University

Concept of pleasantness or comfort as a criterion for environmental evaluation was dicussed. Criteria used for environmental evaluation are not only various but also consist a hierarchical structure. The passive model of the human being in the laboratory study and the active model of the human being in the field survey were compared. The pursuit of positive pleasantness is valid only in the latter, and in the former it has some kind of danger. The concept of ethics in the study of pleasant environment has been set forth, because this kind of study might violate the dignity of the human being. It is, in a word, ethics for environmental control, Iike bio-ethics or environmental ethics.
(Received June 2,1994, Accepted July 26, 1994)
Keywords comfort, evaluation, criteria, ethics, hierachical structure

キーワード 快適、評価、規準、倫理、階層構造
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 68/73, 1994


池田 耕一*、栃原 裕**、大中 忠勝**、松本 恭冶*、鈴木 晃*
*国立公衆衛生院建築衛生学部 **同生理衛生学部

Indoo r Air Quality and Thermal Environment in Rural Houses

Koichi IKEDA*, Yutaka TOCHIHARA**, Tadakatsu OHNAKA**, Kyoji MATSUMOTO* and Akira SUZUKI*
*Department of Architectural Hygiene and Housing Enginering, The Institute of Public Health
**Department of Physiological Hygiene. The Institute of Public Health

Four measurements conducted in conventional houses in rural area showed the present status of indoor air qualities in present Japanese houses with occupants. Measured items were carbon monoxide and dioxide, ventilation rate, humidity and temperatures. The human responses,such as heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were also measured. The most remarkable results were fairly high concentrations of carbon monoxide and dioxide caused by the use of unvented combustion appliances, such as kerosene space heaters and "Sumibi-kotatsu" , or traditional Japanese box heater using burning charcoals. The obvious health effects on the occupants were however not seen in the measurements. But the aged occupants were living in considerablly severe indoor environmental conditions although they are deemed to live in excellent indoor conditions since outdoor air quality in rural ares is generally good.
(Raceived.' June 4, 1994 Accepted: July 26, 1994)
Key words : indoor air quality, rural house, health effect, the aged, thermal environment

キーワード 室内空気質、農村住宅、健康影響、高齢者、温熱環境
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 74/77, 1994


堀 雅宏*、楢崎 正也**、山本 勲**、八幡 清美*
*横浜国立大学工学部 **大阪大学工学部

Development of Carbon Dioxide Passive Sampler and Measurement System and Its Application to Environ mental Evaluation

Masahiro HORI*, Masaya NARASAKI**, Isao YAMAMOTO**
and Kiyomi YAHATA*
*Faculty of Engineering, Yohohama National University
**Faculty of Engineering, Osaha University

A passive sampler and a measurement system were developed for the measurement of average indoor carbon dioxide concentration to evaluate indoor air quality. A plastic bottle of 140 ml had an alkaline absorption filter paper on the bottom and a cap with both a diffusion tube and a spout for gas exchange. After sampling, the concentration of carbon dioxide transported to gas phase by acidification with sulfuric acid, was measured by an infrared meter. Average concentrations were calculated with a constant on diffusion of the sampler and the gas phase concentrations. The proposed method was applied to the measurement and evaluation in residential houses and offices.
(Received: June 4. 1994 Accepted: July 26. 1994)
Key words : carbon dioxide, average concentration, passive sampler, infrared meter, measurement system

キーワード 二酸化炭素、平均濃度、パッシブサンプラー、赤外線吸収式濃度計、測定システム
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 78/82, 1994


新里 寛英、古川 良知

A Portable WBGT-meter for Evaluating Hot Environment

Kan'ei SHINZATO and Yoshitomo FURUKAWA
Kyoto Electronics Manufacturing Co., LTD., Kyushu laboratory.

A portable electronic WBGT-meter for estimating hot environment has been developed. The comparisons between the values of the WBGT - meter and measured values by using the standard method in the field test show good agreement. This portable and simple to operate instrument consists of two thermistor probes to measure each air temperature and globe temperature and a humidity sensor to instantly compute the WBGT indoor and outdoor indices. The meter weighs 650g. The memory is capable to store up to 999 data together with date and time, which can be transferred to a computer and a printer by RS - 232C interface.
(Received: April 20, 1994 Accepted: July 26. 1994)
Key words : hot environment, WBGT, heat illness

 WBGT(Wet bulb globe temperature)は作業者をとりまく空気の温度、湿度、ふく射熱および気流等の要素が総合された指数であり、暑熱障害予防のための温熱環境を把握するための有効な指標とされている。労働現場における快適な職場環境の形成に際しての作業環境の管理や、一般のスポーツ活動および学校での運動、炎天下の農作業などにおける暑熱障害や事故防止およびWBGTを指標とした予防措置の普及に役立てるために暑熱環境評価用WBGTを開発した。春期から夏期にかけて屋外で実施した比較測定の結果、本器のWBGTの値は従来法と約±1℃で一致することを確認した。本器の特徴をまとめると、
(1) 片手で持って操作できるほどの軽量小型で移動測定に便利である。
(2) 湿球温度測定のための水の補給を不要とし、自動測定が可能である。
(3) 長期測定および記録が可能であり現場測定に適している。
キーワード 温熱環境、WBGT、暑熱障害
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 83/86, 1994


清水 則夫
(財)ベターリビング 筑波建築試験センター

Effect of an Attachment of Window on
Thermal Perfomance Improvement

Tukuba Building Test Lavoratory, Center for Better Living

Due to the improvement in the thermal resistance of houses the effects on heating are as follows: 1)Cancellation of temperature distribution of indoor vertical direction. 2)Saving energy effect. 3)Surface temperature of wall rises and long wave radiation becomes less. 4)Decrease of dew condensation. Improvement of thermal resistance is effective for indoor thermal environ -ment. Thermal resistance of a window is extremely small than that of a outside wall. According-ly the reinforcement of thermal resistance of window is important for the improvement of indoor thermal environment. A study was conducted regarding this matter. The existence of dew condensation at window surfaces and the thermal resistance of windows were examined. An experiment was carried out on a window of 213. The result is divided into 3 parts (a kind of glass, a kind of material, an opening and shutting formula of window). When a part was installed at a window, the ratio of improvement on thermal resistance and the existence of dew condensation was examined. A part of 4 kinds (a inner window, a curtain, an acrylic board, a shoji) was di-vided and arranged. The thermal resistance of an opening department on a building was improved by installing a part in a window. There were two effects (saving energy, improvement on residence environment). When the part which has good airtightness was installed at a window, dew condensation became few.When a part is used in the night and not in the daytime, a window does not freeze up all day.
(Received: May 31, 1994 Accepted: July 26, 1994)
Key words : thermal resistance, dew condensation, an attachemet of window

(1) 断熱障子
(2) 断熱内戸
(3) 断熱カーテン
(4) アクリル板使用簡易戸を使用した時の、熱貫流率と温度低下率を測定し、断熱性能の向上効果と結露の発生状況について検討した。
キーワード 熱抵抗、結露、窓の付属物
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 87/95, 1994


田中 隆*、堀 雅宏**、池田 耕一***、入江 建久*4
*山武ハネウエル  **横浜国立大学  ***国立公衆衛生院  *4信州大学

Studies on Indoor Air Quality Monitoring for Comfortable Room

Takashi TANAKA*, Masahiro HORI**, Koichi IKEDA*** and Tatehisa IRIE*4
*Yamatahe-Honeywell **Yohohoma National University
***Institute of Natioual Public Health *4Shinshu University

Monitoring method for indoor air quality control was experimentally studied for comfortable offices and residential houses. The experimental room has an invertor - control fan and a filter unit. For air quality control, dampers of outdoor air introduction, filtering and air cleaners, an electric dust collector and an ozone deodorizer, were handled. In this experiment the room air was ventilated with outdoor air through the filter unit. After the fan stopped, contaminations were generated from occupants and/or smoking, and these control units were handled. The generation rate and removal efficiency were evaluated by monitoring of the contaminants in air of the experimental room. The results show that carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane were removed only by introduction of outdoor air and suspended particles by both filter -ing and the dust collector, and a part of non - methane hydrocarbon, VOC, was removed by the deodorizer. The semiconductor gas sensors detecting contamination level by smoking responded to handling of outdoor air introduction, the deodorizer and filtering by active carbon. Therefore, it is considered that monitoring with the semiconductor gas sensors is effective for air quality control. The relationship between outputs of these monitors and vote values of air quality by panellers was investigated.
(Received: June 4, 1994 Accepted: July 26. 1994)
Key words : indoor air quality, monitoring, control, semiconductor gas sensor

キーワード 室内空気質、モニタリング、制御、半導体ガスセンサ
(J.Human and Living Environment), 1(1), 96/101, 1994