人間と生活環境 vol.02


泉谷 希光
共立女子大学 栄養食品研究室

Human Food Behavior and Health

Laboratory of Food and Nutrition Kyoritsu Women's University

A study on the nutritional ecology and epidemiology surveyed in farming region in Yamagata, for 30 years since 1955, and in Mexico OAXACA Indio District for 20 years since 1972. As a result the following problems were pointed out.
1. The requirements of ecological nutrition have never been instituted corresponding to light and mental labor.
2. In proportion to much intake of protein, the adult diseases have been increased. And a large quantity of protein included in food causes many problems such of allergies and indisposition of internal secretion, pregnancy, and lactation.
3. The most suitable nutritional requirement will be confirmed by investigating the historical and cultural alimentary habits.
(Received: June 15, 1 995 Accepted: June 19, 1995)
Key words: nutritional ecology, health, food pattern

1. 軽労働、精神労働に対応した栄養生態学的な栄養要求量が確立されていない。
2. タンパク質摂取量の量的増大と質的増加による成人病の増加によって、アレルギー、内分泌系の異常、妊娠・母乳分泌の異常が見られる。
3. 文化的習慣的な食の栄養的価値の再評価の必要性が指摘される。
キーワード 栄養生態学、健康、食形態
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 2/7, 1995


楢崎 正也

Indoor Environment and Human Health

Department of Architecture, Setsunan University

First, I mentioned indoor environment. Second, I urged the need of reassessment of the regulation of sunshine, natural lighting and ventilation of living areas under the Building Standard Law, to prevent environmental deterioration. Next, I suggested a proper way of maintaining the air-tightness of buildings in relation to energy conservation. And, as it was hard to evaluate a healthy and pleasant environment, checking on whether the minimum requirements for all environmental factors in buildings are secured or not, was proposed. Finally, I gave my personal comment on a healthy house and healthy ways of living at home in Japan.
(Received: March 31, 1995 Accepted:June 14, 1995)
Key words: discourse, indoor environment, Building Standard Law, evaluation of a healthy environment and a healthy house

キーワード 総説、室内環境、建築基準法、健康環境の評価、健康住宅
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 8/12, 1995


落藤 澄、横山 真太郎、中村 真人

Indoor Climate and Energy Conservation in Hokkaido

Kiyoshi OCHIFUJI, Shintaro YOKOYAMA and Masato NAKAMURA
Hokkaido University

Recently, air-tight energy-efficient houses have been increasing in Japan, especially in Hokkaido, the most nothern island. The new houses have a comfortable thermal environment and consume less energy for heating than the existent ones. It is, however, assumed that indoor air quality is debased in terms of its effects on human health. We discuss present and future problems of indoor environment and energy consumption in Hokkaido. We have been making simultaneous measurements of the multi-components of indoor air quality in Japanese houses composed of three fabric types since 1986 Measured items: 1) air temperature, 2) air humidity, 3) carbon monoxide, 4) carbon dioxide, 5) suspended particles, 6) airborne bacteria, 7) airborne fungi and 8) radon daughters. Radon was measured with the electrostatic integrating monitor method. We have investigated energy consumption for dwelling and discuss energy conservation for heating in the terms of thermal insulation and air tightness. We also discuss how to use solar energy, waste heat and other untapped energy. These utilization of these types of energy for heating and cooling should be taken into consideration when planning infrastructures.
(Received: April 13, 1995 Accepted: May 29, 1995)
Key words: air quality, thermal environment, energy conservation

キーワード 空気質、温熱環境、省エネルギー
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 13/21, 1995


李 旭子、田村 照子

Thermal Spot over Human Body Surface (Part I )
Regional Difference in Cold Spot Distribution

Uk-ja LEE and Teruko TAMURA
Faculty of Home Economics, Bunka Women's University

In order to clarify the factors contributing to the regional difference in cold sensitivity, cold spot distribution over the human body was investigated by a mapping method in a climatic chamber (28 ± 0.5℃). Sammi temperature apparatus, the tip of which was controlled at a temperature of 10 ± 0.5℃ was used for the stimulator. The subiects were 9 femele students and the measurements were conducted on the 25 body regions. The results showed that cold spots were distributed in the 8-23 per cm2 range, the highest on the face and the lowest on the leg. The correlation coefficients between cold sensitivity and cold spot distribution were highly significant (r=0.7-0.8) excluding the palm and sole. The percent of coincidence among two maps obtained on the same area and in the same subject in a I hour interval showed that the mapping method was reliable for evaluating cold spot distribution.
(Received: September 30, 1994 Accepted: December 21, 1994)
Key words: cold spots, mapping, regional differences, cold sensitivity

(1) 冷点密度は8〜23/cm2に分布し、部位による差異が認められた。平均として顔面が最も高く、下腿では最も低い値が得られた。
(2) 冷点密度と冷感受性の相関は、手掌と足底を除くとr=0.7〜0.8と有意で、手掌足底以外の皮膚面では冷点密度は、冷感受性の大きな要因と考えられる。
(3) 同一部位、同一被験者について1時間間隔で測定した2つのマップの一致度により、冷点分布密度を評価する手法としてのマッピング法が信頼しうるものであることが明らかとなった。
キーワード 冷点、マッピング、部位差、冷感受性
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 30/36, 1995


田村 照子、李 旭子

Thermal Spot over Human Body Surface (Part ll)
Regional Difference in Warm Spot Distribution

Teruko TAMURA and Uk-ja LEE
Faculty of Home Economics, Bunka Women's University

Warm spot distribution over the human body was examined by means of a newly developed stimulator, the tip temperature of which was controlled at 40 ± 0.5℃ by circulating hot water. The sub-iects were 10 female students and the measurements were conducted on 25 body regions. The tests showed that warm spots were distributed in the range of 1-6/cm2, high in the face, nape and forearm, and low in the leg. The warm spot distribution had a close relationship with the warm sensitivity over the dorsal surface of the body but not over the ventral surface. The reliability of warm spot mapping was also confirmed in th' t d It was clarified th t the results of warm spot distribution were hi hly in Is s u y. a fluenced by the location of the map and this should be the reason for the large individual difference in warm spot density.
(Received: September 30, 1994 Accepted: December 21, 1994)
Key words: warm spot, regional difference, mapping, warm sensitivity

キーワード 温点、部位差、マッピング、温感受性
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 37/42, 1995


都築 和代
生命工学工業技術研究所 人間環境システム部システム設計研究室

A Study on the Thermal-Sensitivity Characteristics of
the Elderly by Means of a Simple Thermostimulator

National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology

This study was conducted to investigate the thermal-sensitivities of the elderly. A simple th mostimulator was used for making a quantitative assessment of the thermal sensitivity of the skin. Wietrh this apparatus, temperatures at which the subjects felt either warm or cold were recorded, and the difference between the two temperatures was termed the thermal discrimination threshold. Ambient air temper ature and skin temperatures at the finger, palm and back of the hand were also measured. The clothing insulation for each individual subject was estimated from his/her particular clothing ensemble. Th were no significant differences in the warm, cold and thermal discrimination thresholds between the ol~:er and control groups, in spite of the fact that the skin temperature at the back of the hand and clothing in sulation for the older group were significantly lower and higher respectively than those for the control group. The relationships between the cold threshold and both the air temperature and skin temperature at the back of the hand were observed to be significant in the case of the older group.
(Received: June 5, 1995 Accepted: July 25, 1995)
Key words: elderly, cold threshold, thermal-sensitivity, skin temperature, clothing insulation

キーワード 高齢者、冷覚閾値、皮膚温、周囲気温
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 43/47, 1995


寺野 真明*、片山 弘典*、釜谷 周滋*、久野 覚**
*松下電工(株) 評価技術センター **名古屋大学工学部建築学科

Study on Thermal Comfort When Legs are Heated by Radiation

Masaaki TERANO*, Kousuke KATAYAMA* , Syuuji KAMAYA*, Satoru KUNO**
*Matsusita Electric Works, Ltd.,
**Department of Architecture, School of Engineering, Nagoya University

We investigated thermal comfort during leg heating with hot panels and performed experiments to determine which factors affect thermal comfort. We especially focused our attention on two types of thermal non-uniformities caused by heating with hot panels: the non-uniformity between the up-per and lower halves of the body and 2) the shin and calf. We attempted to explain thermal comfort in terms of these factors. Three men and three women participated in the experiments. Three to seven heat-ing panels were prepared for the experiments. A main panel was placed in front of the participant's legs. Others were placed on the side of participant's legs. By changing the number of panels (30 cm, 60 cm and 90 cm), we controlled thermal non-uniformity between shin and calf. Surface temperatures of the panels were also changed (50℃, 60℃ and 70℃). The air temperature in the climatic chamber was set at 17℃, 19℃ and 21℃ with a relative humidity of 500/0. Thermal sensation vote, thermal comfort vote and thermal sensation of various parts of the body were measured. In order to express thermal non-uniformities, radiant temperature asymmetry (RTA) and plane radiant temperature (PRT) were also measured. The following results were obtained:
(1) Thermal comfort was higher for long side panels than for short side panels.
(2) Thermal comfort when legs were heated by radiation is explainable in terms of three factors: operative temperature at the center of the body, the heat balance between the upper and lower halves of the body and local non-uniformity of the legs.
(Received: March 31, 1995 Accepted:July 25, 1995)
Key words: thermal comfort, thermal sensation, thermal radiation, uneven

(1) 側面パネルにより温熱快適性は大きく向上する。
(2) 脚部放射加熱時の温熱快適性は作用温度、上半身─下半身熱バランス、脚部の熱的不均一性の3要因により説明が可能である。
キーワード 温熱快適性、熱放射、不均一
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 48/57, 1995


小林 定教

Reasons for Installation and Evaluation of Onsite Domestic Sewage Treatment Tank: the Change from Night Soil Collection to Onsite Domestic Sewage Treatment Tanks

Faculty of Engineering, Fukuyama University

In spite of demands for modernization of living styles and comfortable living environments, some living-related facilities have not yet been adopted nationwide. Among them are flush toilet and sew-age treatment facilities, for which implementation is urgent. I began making field surveys of urban and surrounding areas and depopulated areas of the Bingo district in western Japan, which features topog-raphical variations, for the purpose of collecting fundamental data about the propagation of onsite domes-tic sewage treatment tanks and water preservation over the coming years. The survey took into account the effects of the propagation of onsite domestic sewage treatment tanks on daily life, changes in attitudes towards the environment (which is gaining a lot of attention these days) and usage problems with onsite domestic sewage treatment tanks from the users' standpoint. Onsite domestic sewage treatment tanks were highly favored as countermeasures to water pollution, and a way to improve household hygiene, reduce odors, improve living conditions and the environment etc. while the reduction of installation and maintenance costs and various other improvements were also in high demand.
(Received: March 30, 1 995 Accepted: July 25, 1 995)
Key words: onsite domestic sewage treatment tank, night soil, night soil collection, water pollution, waste water, evaluation, user

キーワード 合併処理浄化槽、し尿、くみ取、水質汚濁、雑排水、評価、使用者
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 58/66, 1995


光田 恵*、磯田 憲生**、久保 博子**、梁瀬 度子**

Actual State and Evaluation of Kitchen Garbage Odor in the Kitchen

Megumi MITSUDA*, Norio ISODA**, Hiroko KUBO** and Takuko YANASE**
*Greduate Faculty of Humau Life and Culture, Nara Women's University
**Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women's University

We surveyed detached houses and multiple dwellings to show the actual state of garbage odor in the kitchen. The survey included measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and globe temperature in the kitchen, temperature and odor sensor value at the place of garbage storage. Housewives were questioned aubot the time used for household work in the kitchen, storage conditions of garbage, odor sensation (odor intensity, unpleasantness, quality of odor and tolerance). We measured odors using two kinds of odor sensors. One of them responds to the odor of hydrogen sulfide, and its measured value is correlated to evaluations of odor sensation. The length of time when the odor sensor value exceeded the acceptable level of garbage odor in the kitchen was influenced considerably by the storage time of the garbage and the state of storage container. The total length of time exceeding the acceptable level was about one third of the period measured for the house as a whole.
(Received: May 1 6, 1 995 Accepted.' July 25, 1 995)
Key words: garbage odor, kitchen, odor sensation, odor sensor value

キーワード 生ごみ臭、臭気感覚、ニオイセンサ値
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 67/74, 1995


島村 実花*、中尾 芙美子**、金子 佳代子***
*専修大学付属高等学校 **東京健康科学専門学校 ***横浜国立大学教育学部

Fluid Replacement after Sweating Caused by Physical Exercise and Guidance of Eating and Drinking after Exercise

Mika SHIMAMURA*, Fumiko NAKAO**, Kayoko KANEKO***
*Senshu University Senior High School. **Tokyo College of Wellness Sciences
***Faculty of Education, Yokohama National University

Exp. I: Sweat rate, fluid intake and water debt during and after exercise were estimated in 62 university athletic club students. Their water intake in meals after exercise was also calculated. Exp. II: Effect of the kind of drink {a: tea (no sugar or sodium), b, c: carbohydrate-electrolyte beveragel, 2, d: soft drink (sugar), e: carbonated beverage (sugar), f: coffee with milk (sugar) } for one hour after exercise and the amount of each beverage was compared and temperature of drinks (10℃, 70℃) and ambient temperature (25℃, 35℃) were estimated. Exp. 111: Effect of salt content (5.0g, 2.5g) of meal on fluid intake until going to bed were estimated after exercise. The results were as follows:
(l) Even if allowed to drink as much as they want for one hour after exercise, their water debt was not recovered, but they took about 1 Iiter of water from the meal, and their water debt was likely to have been recovered by the time of sleep.
(2) They were not able to drink as large amount of tea as sports drinks (b,c) or soft drinks (d,e,f) and neither temperature of the drink nor of the room effected fluid intake.
(3) Low-salt meal slightly reduced fluid intake before going to bed.
(Received: April 2, 1995 Accepted:July 25, 1995)
Key words: sweat rate, fluid intake, water debt, carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage, Iow-salt meal

(1) 運動後1時間に自由に水分摂取した後も水負債を解消しきれなかったが、就寝までに1kg以上摂取しており、本研究における発汗程度では運動後の飲食によって水負債を解消出来ると考えられた。
(2) 被験者は麦茶を好んでいたにも関わらず、スポーツドリンク(b、c)及び清涼飲料水(d、e、f)よりも多くは飲めなかった。
(3) 食事中塩分が少ないと水分摂取量が少なくなる傾向がみられた。
キーワード 発汗量、水分摂取量、水負債、糖分含有電解質溶液(スポーツドリンク)、低塩食
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 75/81, 1995


池田 耕一

Estimation of the Present Status of Ventilation Rates in
Residential Buildings in Japan

Koichi IKEDA
The Institute of Public Health

It is now a matter of course to estimate the ventilation rate of each room in the design of build-ing having a central HVAC system because the ventilation rate is widely recognized as one of the most important factors affecting indoor air quality and energy consumption rate. But the ventilation rates of actual buildings in practical use by occupants are not necessarily well known. Such a case is some time happen that the actual ventilation rate is almost zero because of the unexpected use of the occupants while enough rate is assured in the designed value. As it is so even in the case of buildings of which ventilation rates are estimated in the design procedures, we are almost ignorant of the ventilation rates of residential buildings having no HVAC systems. The published data measured in residential buildings are reviewed in order to know the ranges of the ventilation rates expected in actual residential environments. I also have studied about future subjects for the ventilation rate estimation researches and practical problems of the measurements.
(Received: April 3, 1 995 Accepted:June 28, 1 995)
Key words: ventilation, indoor air quality, Iiterature review, residential building

キーワード 換気、室内空気質、文献調査、住宅
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 82/91, 1995


宮崎 靖子、斉藤 信、瀬下 裕
三菱電機株式会社 住環境研究開発センター

A Study on Evaluation of Non-uniform Thermal Environments by Human Body Model
Part 1. Making a Model for the Simulation of the Effect of
the Radiation and an Experiment Using Subjects

Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Living Environment Systems Laboratory

This paper aims to make the human body model for the simulation of the effect of non-uniform radiation on the human body. The authors decide the shape and size of the human body model, and verify that the angle factors between the model and walls correspond to those for actual persons. The radiant panel is installed around a subject seated in the center of the model room. The temperature of the surface of the radiant panel was set at four different degrees: 10, 25, 40 and 55℃. As for results, the thermal sensation differed from PMV in non-uniform radiation under certain conditions. As the result of evaluation by the human body model, this may be caused by the imbalance in the radiant heat flux in each part of the human body.
(Received: April 28, 1 995 Accepted: July 25, 1 995)
Key words: thermal comfort, human body model, non-uniform radiation, evaluation

キーワード 温熱適快適性、人体モデル、不均一放射、評価
(J.Human and Living Environment), 2(1), 92/100, 1995

Back | Next