人間と生活環境 vol.04 No.1


小川 徳雄

Thermal Physiology of the Young and Old of Both Sexes:
─Part 2. Gender Differences and Effects of Aging─

Department of Physiology, Aichi Medical University

In part 2, gender differences in thermoregulation and the effect of aging on thermoregulatory functions are discussed. No gender difference in body temperature is generally recognized, but no well-controlled data are available in the literature. Cyclic variation in the basal body temperature of the female is mainly induced by the central effect of progesterone. Gender differences in the process of heat balance are attributed largely to the presence of the second chemical regulation in the female, and to lower metabolic rate and thicker subcutaneous fat in the female than the male. Thus, women sweat much less than men, but the activity of sweat glands per se is also lower in the female. Tolerance to cold is superior in women, while increase in heat production upon exposure to cold is less in women. Increase in sweat gland activity in association with heat acclimatization is more evident in the male. With advancing age, body temperature tends to decline, and the amplitude of its circadian variation is reduced. Thermoregula-tory functions of the elderly are characterized by reduction in thermal sensation and perception, in affe-rent and efferent nervous function, and in effector functions, and by retarded responses in cutaneous blood flow, sweating and shivering, with considerable individual variations. Adaptability to heat and cold is reduced with advancing age, especially in the male.
Key words: body temperature, thermoregulation, gender, aging

キーワード 体温、体温調節、性差、加齢、高齢者
(J.Human and Living Environment), 4(1), 2/7, 1996


後藤 滋

Introduction to Environmental Engineering

Shigeru GOTOH
Department of Architecture and Building Sciences, Ashikaga Institute of Technology

We speak of environmental engineering in a broad sense, but here we deal only with architectural environment engineering. When we think about the environmental elements in the existence of the human race, we include water, air, earth and solar energy. These are called basic environmental elements. When we think about the history of architectural environment engineering, we can find a starting point in "Architectural Hygiene" written by Rintaro Mori. Considerable study of the hygiene of housing was conducted in the Taisho era by specialists in hygiene. Kohji Fujii then joined the study as a person interested in architecture. Architectural Science was systematized in the Showa era and environmental engineering was formed as "the Principles of Architectural Planning". Study and education in this field came to be praticed in Showa 10 to 20 (1935 to 1945), and becames more popular after World War, but it used various names. The name "Environmental Engineering" has been used at the Architectural Institute of Japan since Showa 39 (1964), and this branch of study now includes districts, cities and the global environment.
Key words: fundamental lecture, environmental engineering, architectural hygiene, the principles of architectural planning, architectural environment engineering

キーワード 基礎講座、環境工学、建築衛生、建築計画原論、建築環境工学
(J.Human and Living Environment), 4(1), 8/13, 1996


窪田 敏行

Damage to Buildings Caused by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and Earthquake Resistant Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Toshiyuki KUBOTA
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University

An outline of the damage caused by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995 was referred especially for reinforced concrete buildings. The statistical data based on the damage survey of all reinforced concrete buildings in the area of earthquake intensity 7 were analyzed. The distinct features of the damage and problems in earthquake-resistant design were discussed and the evaluation of the seismic safety of exisisting buildings was also discussed.
Key words: Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, earthquake damage, reinforced concrete structures, Build-ing Standard Law, evaluation of seismic safety of existing building

キーワード 阪神淡路大震災、地震被害、鉄筋コンクリート建物、建築基準法、既存建物の耐震診断
(J.Human and Living Environment), 4(1), 14/19, 1996


申 正和、田村 照子

Physiological and Psychological Thermal Responses to
Local Heating of Human Body in Hot Environments

Jeoung-hwa SHIN and Teruko TAMURA
Faculty of Home Ecouomics, Bunha Women's University

The effects of local heating on physiological and psychological thermal responses were examined on three healthy female students in a hot environment controlled at 35 ℃ and 50 % r.h. Each subject's tympanic temperature, skin temperature, blood flow rate, sweating rate and thermal sensation, etc., were measured during the experiment, which consisted of a 30 minute control phase, a 30 minute local heating phase and a 30 minute recovery phase. The surface temperature of the 15 X 20 cm heating pad was controlled by circulating 45 ℃ water through a silicon tube. The heated regions were the neck, back, loin, upper arms, Iower legs and feet. Results showed that physiological and psychological thermal responses to local heating differed according to the heated body regions. They were classified into three groups. When the feet, upper arms and back were heated, the increase in the tympanic temperature and sweating rate was relatively great despite little increase in thermal sensation. On the other hand, when the neck was heated, neither the tympanic temperature nor the sweating rate increased significantly, but the thermal sensation increased noticeably. When the loin and lower legs were heated, both physiological and psychological responses were moderate.
(Received: May 13, 1996 Accepted: Sept. 9, 1996)
Key words: Iocal heating, thermoregulation, sweating rate, mean skin temperature, blood flow

キーワード 局所加温、体温調節、蒸散量、平均皮膚温、血流量
(J.Human and Living Environment), 4(1), 20/28, 1996


森田 矢次郎、今井 文雄、呉 邵忠

Thermal Engineering Study on Thermal Stimulation Caused by Moxibustion

Yajiro MORITA, Fumio IMAI and Shaozhong WU
Faculty of Eugineering, Takushoku University

The study of moxibustion has been done from the viewpoint of oriental medicine to demon-strate that moxibustion is very effective for curing illnesses and maintaining health. Some thermal en-gineering data were obtained with salt moxibustion experiments, and in moxibustion experiments on hu-man subjects, the thermal and comfort sensation felt by the subjects was time-traced by their votes. The results were as follows.
(1) Given the weight of the salt and moxa as well as the twist and quality of moxa, we can predict, within a certain range of variation, the quantitative smoldering tendency of the moxa.
(2) There are considerable differences in the conductivity and diffusivity of human skin from one individual to another.
(3) Salt moxibustion, when actually performed on a subject, involves heat flow re-versal (release and absorption) at the skin which is repeated several times as the operator repeats the smoldering with a new moxa after one has smoldered out.
(4) Thermally stimulated by salt moxibustion, a human subject feels comfortable as heat is going out from the skin and during the initial warming-up period.

(Received: April 1 1, 1996 Accepted: Sept. 9, 1996)
Key words: Moxibustion, Salt moxibustion, Thermal engineering, Thermal stimulation, Sensation

(1) 塩の量と艾の量をパラメーターとし、各種の艾を用いて、塩灸の実験データを取り、1個の艾柱が燃え尽きるまでの熱の発生と散逸、人体表面の界面の温度変化について、定量的な知見を得た。
(2) 被験者の皮膚の熱伝導率と熱拡散率に個人差があると考えられる。
(3) 塩灸実施時の温熱変化の特徴は、施灸者が艾柱を燃やすという過程を数回繰り返すので、人間の皮膚が熱の吸収と奉放散を繰り返す、という点である。
(4) 塩灸被験者の温熱感覚が快適となるのは、皮膚からの熱の拡散がある時と皮膚が熱を吸収し、皮膚表面の温度が上昇し始める期間である。
キーワード 灸療法、塩灸、熱工学、温熱刺激、感覚
(J.Human and Living Environment), 4(1), 29/33, 1996


長田 泰公*、高野倉 睦子**、藤田 光子***、下田 邦枝***、中川 千種****
*国立公衆衛生院  **昭和学院短大  ***共立女子短大  ****元共立女子短大

Relationship between Physiological Reactions and
Subjective Responses of Clothed Females during the Exercise
─An Analysis by the Path Model─

Yasutaka OSADA*, Mutsuko TAKANOKURA** Mitsuko FUJITA***
Kunie SHIMODA*** and Chigusa NAKAGAWA****
*Institute of Public Health **Showa-GakuiuJunior College,
***Kyoritsu Women's Junior College, and ****formerly Kyoritsu Women's Junior College.

Seventeen healthy female students served as subjects in this study and, wearing a training suit, performed a 20 min exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Air temperature in the climate chamber was kept~at 20 ℃ or 30 ℃ with a relative humidity of 60% and air-velocity of less than 0.1m/s. Skin temperature at five sites, rectal and ear canal temperature, temperature and humidity under, between and above the clothes were determined every 3 min. Thermal and wetness sensations and discomfort were voted by the subjects also every 3 min. A primary path model was estimated in which these subjective responses de-pended on the antecedent physiological variables. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to select the suitable endogenous variables to avoid multicollinearity. After the multiple regression analysis, the path model was revised for 20 ℃ and 30 ℃ experiments. The effects of the increase in body temperature and sweating on discomfort at 30 ℃ were quantitatively demonstrated.
(Received:July 1, 1996 Accepted: Aug. 26, 1996)
Key words: thermal sensation, thermal discomfort, path model, multiple regression analysis

キーワード 温冷感、温熱的不快感、パスモデル、重回帰分析
(J.Human and Living Environment), 4(1), 34/41, 1996


北川 晃一*、早野 ひろ子*、斎藤 俊彦*、菰田 紀子*、田辺 新一**
*(株)東芝 住空間システム技術研究所  **お茶の水女子大学

Effect of Humidity and Air Movement on Thermal Comfort under a Radiant Cooling System Investigated in Subjective Experiments

Koichi KITAGAWA*, Hiroko HAYANO*, Toshihiko SAITO*
Noriko KOMODA* and Shin-ichi TANABE**
*Toshiba Corp. **Ochanomizu University

Radiant heating/cooling systems are expected to be more comfortable and superior energy-saving systems than convective air-conditioning systems generally used. There are many studies on radiant cooling systems, but they have seldom been put to practical use, because of the condensation problem in Japan. The objective of this study is to investigate thermal comfort in particular, including the effects of humidity (45%rh, 65%rh, 85%rh) and air movement (0.1m/s: constant, on/off; 0.1〜0.3 m/s: ran-dom change), by means of subjective experiments conducted on a radiant ceiling cooling system. The experiments are performed with radiant cooling panels in a climate chamber. The subjects sat on a chair under the radiant cooling panels, and they voted on thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The follow-ing results were obtained. With the radiant cooling system, the influence of humidity and air movement on thermal sensation votes for the whole body was evaluated by SET* within one scale difference on the thermal sensation vote (7 scale) in the above experimental conditions. Air movement with the radiant cooling system was expected to have one scale cooler effect than the thermal sensation vote evaluated by SET*. In addition, a small amount of air movement was expected to improve the comfortable sensation votes with the radiant cooling.
(Received: May 10, 1996 Accepted Nov. 20, 1996)
Key words: radiant cooling system, subjective experiment, thermal sensation vote, comfortable sensation vote, Standard New Effective Temperature (SET*)

 放射冷暖房方式は、従来の対流による空調方式よりも快適で省エネルギー性が期待できるといわれている。床暖房やラジエータを用いた放射暖房方式は数多く実用化されており、研究例も多い。一方、放射冷房は、研究はよく行われているが、日本では結露の問題等から一般に普及していないのが現状である。本研究では、日本の住宅においても使用可能な放射冷暖房システム開発のための基礎研究として、天井放射冷房時における、湿度、微弱気流の体感に及ぼす影響を調べることを目的とし、被験者実験を行い、全身および身体各部位の熱的快適性を分析した。実験は、湿度、気流について数種類の条件に設定した人工気候室において、種々表面温度にコントロールした放射冷却パネルの下に被験者を座らせ、温熱環境を計測し、温冷感と快不快感に関する申告をさせた。本研究の主な結果として、放射冷房時の全身の温冷感に対する湿度(45%rh, 65%rh, 85%rh)及び気流(0.1m/s:constant, on/off;0.1〜0.3m/s:random)の影響を新標準有功温度SET*を用いると全身の温冷感スケールで±1程度の誤差を生じること、微弱気流を放射冷房と併用することにより、全身及び局所的な温冷感が全体的にSET*の評価より温冷感スケールで1程度涼しい方向にシフトするとともに、快適感が向上する傾向があることを明らかとした。
キーワード 放射冷房、被験者実験、温冷感申告、快適性申告、新標準有功温度SET*
(J.Human and Living Environment), 4(1), 42/51, 1996


小野 公平、須貝 高、尾崎 明仁

Effects of Thermal Insulation and Shading
on Air Conditioning Load of Dwelling in Mild Climate

Kohei ONO, Takashi SUGAI and Akihito OZAKI
Greduate School of Engineering, Fukuoha University
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoha University

In light of the recent demand for saving energy, even dwelling houses in mild climates have been highly insulated. The effects of thermal insulation and shading on the air conditioning load in detached houses are studied on the basis of numerical simulation in the climate of Fukuoka falling under region rv of the Energy Conservation Standard. The heating load linearly decreases with the decrease in the heat loss coefficient. However, the cooling load does not change in the case of LDK in which generated indoor heat is considerably large. Peak cooling load appeared in the daytime of summer is suppressed by high grade insulation in envelope structure and sun shade glazing. The cooling load of a highly insulated house is decreased by a way of living adapted to mild climates, such as intermittent air conditioning, the introduction of outside air and the effective exhausting of generated indoor heat.
Key words: mild climate region, thermal insulation, thermal shading, heat loss coefficient, sun shade glazing, generated indoor heat

キーワード 温暖地域、断熱、遮熱、熱損失係数、日射遮蔽窓ガラス、内部発熱
(J.Human and Living Environment), 4(1), 52/60, 1996


堀 雅宏、楊 建萍

Considerations of Volatile Organic Compounds Pollution in
Dwellings and Its Measurernent and Evaluation

Masahiro HORI and Jianpin YANG
Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were surveyed in various kinds of dwelling houses in Japan. T (total) VOC, formaldehyde and suspended particulate matter were measured together with the air change rate in nine of the dwellings, and only VOCs were measured in the others. Examples of the concentrations of identified chemical compounds and chemical classes are also shown. The hydrocarbon concentration for 24 hours was monitored in one of them by PAS (photo-acoustic spectrometry). The main items considered were: The relationship between air-change-rate-correction concentrations of TVOC and formaldehyde, and the age of dwellings, concentrations of VOCs detected in the surveys, characteris-tics of composition of VOC and coexistence of very volatile organic compounds (VVOC) with a boiling point lower than 50 ℃, time taken to obtain stationary concentration in rooms with no openings; Sampling times and numbers; TVOC measurement as screening test, and FID (Flame ionization detector) and PAS as a TVOC monitor. The measurement of the TVOC concentration after confirming the stationary concentration with a real time monitor or a lapse of 5 hours or more in rooms with no openings was proposed for risk evaluation of VOC exposure. The TVOCs are measured with FID and PAS after separ-ating VOCs from VVOCs in sample air.
(Received: June 17, 1996 Accepted: July 27, 1996)
Key words: volatile organic compound, formaldehyde, dwelling, indoor air quality, environmental survey

キーワード 揮発性有機化合物、ホルムアルデヒド、住宅、室内空気質、環境調査
(J.Human and Living Environment), 4(1), 61/69, 1996

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