人間と生活環境 vol.05 No.1


岩田 利枝

Light and Color
─From the View Point of Environmental Science in Buildings─

Toshie IWATA
Dept. of Architectural Hygene Eng., The Institute of Public Health

This paper presents basic knowledge of lighting starting by considering what light is and how it may be quantified. Light is a very small part, from about 380nm to 780 nm of the wavelength, of the electromagnetic spectrum. The CIE standard relative spectral sensitivity curve forms the basis of conversion from radiometric quantities to the photometric quantities involving luminous flux, illuminance, Iuminous intensity and luminance. The color of spectrum and that of objects are briefiy explained in connection with the reflection and the transmission of light. Color perception results from the complex interaction between a light source, an object, the eye, and the brain. Sources of light in buildings, daylight and artificial light sources, are also briefly described including historical background. Finally, from the view points of usefulness, comfort and pleasantness, various features of interior lighting, e.g. required task illuminance, disability glare, perceived brightness, discomfort glare and techniques in lighting design, are presented.
Key words: photometric quantities, daylight, artificial light source, interior lighting

 本稿は光の基礎知識として、光とは何か、いかに定量するものなのかから始められた。光は電磁はのたいへん小さい領域380mm〜780mmの波長域にあたる。CIEの標準比視感度曲線によって放射量が光束、照度、光度、輝度といった測光量に変換されている。光の反射や透過と関連して、スペクトルの色、物体の色について述べた。色は光源、、物体、眼、脳の関係によってもたらせれるものである。昼光、人工光といった室内の光源について、歴史的背景を記述し、最後に、usefulness, comfort, pleasantnessの視点から必要照度、視力低下グレア、明るさ感、不快グレア、演出照明など、室内のさまざまな面について述べた。
キーワード 測光量、昼光、人工光、室内照明
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(1), 3/11, 1997


大中 忠勝

Vision and lllumination
─From the Viewpoint of Environmental Ergonomics─

Tadakatsu OHNAKA
Department of Living Environmental Science, Faculty of
Human Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women's University

The complete visual system controls about 90% of all our activities in everyday life. It is there-fore important to enlarge the stock of knowledge of visual perception when one designs a comfortable visual environment. This paper deals with the human visual system from the viewpoint of environmental ergonomics. The main contents are the visual system, the accommodation of the eye and the regulation of the aperture of the pupil, and so on. And the relationship between visual performance and age is also de-scribed.
Key words: vision, visual performance, illumination, elderly

キーワード 視覚、視力、照明、高齢者
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(1), 12/15, 1997


楢崎 正也

Damage to Lifeline Services and Occupants' Reactions in Condominiums Affected by the Great Hanshin─Awaji Earthquake

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Setsunan University

The earthquake caused unexpectedly great damage to the condominium lifeline. The task of restoring the severely damaged water and sewerage services was particularly difficult. Great damages to condominium building services involved the elevated tanks, water supply pumps and storage type water heaters. In responding to questionnaires, the occupants said that the greatest inconvenience was the lack of water for flush toilets. To provide for future emergencies, space for temporary toilets should be se-cured nearby condominiums, and wells, streams and hydrants should be provided to supply water for occupants. And establishing good relationships among neighbors on a daily basis is necessary, so that they may help each other in cases of emergency.
Key words: damage to lifeline services, occupants' reactions, condominiums, questionnaires, earthquake

キーワード ライフラインの被害、居住者の対応、マンション、アンケート調査、地震
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(1), 16/22, 1997


山岸 明浩*、堀越 哲美**、石井 仁***

Influence of Vertical Air Temperature Distribution on
the Human Skin Temperature and Thermal Sensation

Akihiro YAMAGISHI*, Tetsumi HORIKOSHI** and Jin ISHII***
*Dept. of Human Life and Environmental Science, Niigata Women's College
**Dept. of Environmental Technology and Urban Planning, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology
***Dept. of Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology

The purpose of this paper is to find the influence of vertical air temperature distribution on the human skin temperature and thermal sensation. In this experiment, five males in a sedentary nude state were the subjects. The air temperatures measured at the 0.7 m level were 28 ℃ and 25 ℃, and the vertical air temperature difference measured at the 0.Im and 1.Im levels were O ℃, 4 ℃ and 8 ℃. The subjects were exposed to six kinds of vertical air temperature distributions. The skin temperature decreased from the forehead to the instep. The response of the skin temperature of each part was affected by the vertical air temperature difference and the air temperature measured at the 0.7m level. The head thermal sensation vote was hotter than that of other parts, and the foot was colder than other parts. The vertical air temperature distribution affects the response of the lower body more strongly than upper body. With the increase in the vertical air temperature difference, the skin temperature difference and the thermal sensation difference between the upper and lower parts increase. During the experiment, Ieg skin temperature was lower at 28 ℃, and leg, instep and mean skin temperature was lower at 25 ℃.
Key words: vertical air temperature difference, skin temperature, thermal sensation, nonuniformity, position

キーワード 上下気温差、皮膚温、温冷感、不均一、部位
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(1), 23/34, 1997


庄司 祐子*、竹森 利和**、中島 健***
*神戸大学大学院自然科学研究科  **大阪ガス(株)  ***神戸大学工学部

Heat Transfer Study using a Clothed Human Thermal Model
─Effect of thickness of air layer within clothing─

Yuko SHOJI*, Toshikazu TAKEMORI**, Tsuyoshi NAKAJIMA***
*Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, **Osaha Gas Co., Ltd., ***Department of Mechauical Engineering, Kobe University

In this paper we investigated the effects of thickness of air layer within clothing on physiological response and micro climate within clothing, by using a clothed human thermal model. The model can simulate heat and mass transfer in and around the clothed human body. The simulation was done at ambient temperatures of 22 to 31 ℃, a relative humidity of 45% and no wind, assuming that a human wore sweat suits whose openings were closed. In cold environments, shivering was the main thermoregulatory response, which changed skin and clothing temperature greatly. The metabolic rate was the smallest at a thickness of air layer of 1 cm. In hot environments, perspiration was the main thermoregulatory response, which changed skin and clothing humidity greatly. The perspiration rate was greatest at a thickness of air layer of 1-2 cm. Heat resistance of the air layer was much greater than that of the fabric layer, and the effect of radiation was dominant in dry heat resistance when the thickness of air layer was greater than 0.5 cm. Convection within clothing occurred at a thickness of air layer of 1-3 cm, which de-creased the warmth retaining property. However the effect of convection was very small under steady, no wind environmental conditions with openings of clothing closed.
Key words: Clothed human thermal model, numerical simulation, thickness of air layer within clothing, thermoregulation, micro climate within clothing

キーワード 人体着衣熱モデル、数値計算、衣服下空気層厚さ、体温調節、衣服内気候
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(1), 35/41, 1997

Indoor Air Quality of Multi-Family Houses during Winter in Koria

Chung-sook YOON and Eun-seon Park
Department of Housing and Interior Design, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

The purpose of this study is to find out indoor air quality of apartments in winter. Eight houses were selected for the experimental subjects. Indoor air temperature and relative humidity for thermal environmental factors were measured. Also CO, C02, and TSP for indoor air contaminants were measured. As the result, the average concentration of CO and dust satisfied the indoor air quality standards in most houses. But the average concentration of C02 in small apartments exceeded the permitted value 1,000 ppm in the situation that gas stove was used without ventilating. Size of apartments and ventilating, smoking and gas usage had significant effects on indoor air quality. Small apartments had higher air pollution than that of the bigger ones. A result of analysis of the physical environmental factors and the subjective responses revealed that the residents sensed the freshness of air under the condition C02 concentration was less than 616 ppm. Therefore it is especially important to consider air pollution problem from the beginning stage of planning small apartments.
Key words indoor air quality, indoor air contaminants, the subjective responses

キーワード 室内空気質、空気の新鮮度感、集合住宅
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(1), 42/50, 1997


小林 定教*、宮地 功**、黒谷 靖雄*
*島根大学総合理工学部 **福山大学工学部

Evaluation of Tandoku-shori Johkasou for Inhabitants in
Senri-Mountainous Areas, and Problems as to Changing from Tandoku-shori to Gappei-shori Johkasou

Sadanori KOBAYASHI*, Isao MIYACHI** and Yasuo KUROTANI*
*Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University and
**Faculty of Engineering, Fukuyama University

Installation of the tandoku-shori johkasou has brought about the installation of flush toilets in rural areas, improving the living environment there. On the other hand, recent improvements in the living standard and changes in lifestyles have produced greater amounts of various kinds of domestic wastewater, accelerating the pollution of river water and lakes. For this reason urgent changes to the gappei-shori johkasou which can alsb process miscellaneous domestic wastewater is awaited. In this paper evaluation of the tandoku-shori johkasou from the user's point of view and problems in changing from tandoku-shori to gappei-shori johkasou are studied. The users evaluated the tandoku-shori johkasou highly and already have taken advantage of the convenience of the flush toilet; while the importance of processing miscellaneous wastewater was acknowledged, it can be assumed that the users had difficulty in accepting the b den of costs of processing the domestic wastewater, which had previously been discharged unprocessed and free of charge, unable to change to gappei-shori johkasou. Therefore a realistic solution will lie in the development of a miscellaneous wastewater processing method using the existing tandoku-shori johkasou, while further promoting the change to the gappei-shori johkasou.
Key words: gappei-shori johkasou, tandoku-shori johkasou,wastewater, evaluation, change

キーワード 合併処理浄化槽、単独処理浄化槽、生活雑排水、評価、付け換え
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(1), 51/58, 1997

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