人間と生活環境 vol.05 No.2


長田 泰公

Sound Environment and Man From the View point of Physiology

Yasutaka OSADA
Honorary Member and Consultant of the National Institute of Public Health

Sound is one of the important sources of environmental information. The sensory organ for sound is the ear consisting of the outer-, middle- and inner-ear. Nerve-signals from the ear reach the auditory nervous center of the brain, and there produce the sensation and perception of sound. This article explains the structure and function of this hearing system. Hearing acuity and hearing loss are also explained. Moreover, non-specific response to sound through the reticular formation, hypothalamo-autonomic system and limbic system is also described. For further information on the relationship between sound environment and man, psychological consideration of the perception and recognition of sound is needed.
Key words: hearing organs, sensation and perception of sound, hearing acuity, hearing loss, non-specific sound effects.

キーワード 聴器、音の感覚と知覚、聴力、聴力損失、音の非特殊的影響
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(2), 90/100, 1998


田村 明弘

Creation of Sound Environment
─From the Viewpoint of Environmental Science in Architecture─

Akihiro TAMURA
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University

The elements in controlling and creating a sound environment are quietness, good reverberation and pleasant sound. One of the most important factors in human daily life, apart from sleeping and thinking, is quietness. Good reverberation is a factor in rating the condition and quality of a room. It is important to select good sounds from a confusing environment by listening to our surroundings carefully. The concept of coexistence has to be considered when we research and educate concerning sound problems in the field of architecture, because this field is closely concerned with designing buildings, cities, society and the earth.
Key words: quietness, good reverberation, pleasant sound, noise, room acoustic design, coexistence

キーワード 静けさ、よい響き、よい音、騒音、室内音響設計、共生
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(2), 101/106, 1998


大村 知子

Clothing Worn by Sufferers of the Great Hanshin- Awaji Earthquake

Tomoko OMURA
Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University

A study was conducted on wearing habits and the management of clothing that may help people protect themselves physically and psychologically from the shock of an emergency such as the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Now the need for education in risk management and survival skills of clothing, such as daily preservation of underwears, has been suggested.
Key words: Protection against natural disaster, Wearing Habits, Management practice, Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Sufferer, Change over time
キーワード 防災、着装行動、管理行動、阪神・淡路大震災被災者、経時変化
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(2), 107/112, 1998


桜庭 晶子*、吉田 あこ**、吉田 マイ***
*筑波技術短期大学 **実践女子大学 ***吉田研究室

Investigation of Age-Related Yellow-Vision and Study of
Yellow-Correcting Method with Blue-Filters

Shoko SAKURABA*, Clara Ako YOSHIDA** and Angela Mai YOSHIDA***
*TSUKUBA College of Technology,
**JISSEN Women's University and ***YOSHIDA Studio

ne of the characteristics of normal age-related vision losses depends on yellow-intensity (Y-intensity) in the lens of the eye. We investigated discrimination between 7 intensities of yellow in 303 Japanese elderly people aged from late 60s to early 90s. The results demonstrated that the failure of vi-sion increases with age, and the loss depends on yellow-intensity. We obtained age-related yellowing levels in investigations, and selected 2 filters (Y46, Y44) corresponding to the middle and profound age-related yellowing vision levels, which each met with the Yellow-Index (YI). A selection study of blue-filters correcting age-related yellowing vision was conducted as follows:
(1) We chose 6 kinds of blue-filters setting exactly on the Unique-Blue line in a chromaticity diagram of all marketable blue-filters.
(2) We obtained the Yellow-Index from different Y-deepness color charts covering each with these 6 kinds of blue-filters, and selected 2 kinds of blue-filters (B4, B6) of which each YI zero-point met with 53% or 89% of Y-intensity.
(3) We considered that these 2 blue-filters could correct age-related yellowing vision, after colorimetrying 14 yellowing color charts covered by them. Further problems with these selected blue-filters are how to light up dark vision and how to add blue-purple chromatogram to return to each origin-al color position.

(Received: Nov. 1, 1996 Accepted: Aug. 20, 1997)
Key words: yellow-vision, age, changing-colors, simulation, chromaticity-diagram

(1) 実態調査による高齢者の加齢視界黄変化の状況の把握
(2) 黄変化の各段階をシミュレートするための黄透明薄膜の選定
(3) 黄変化補正の可能性のある青透明薄膜の選定を行った。これらの透明薄膜を用いて色標の黄変化色度の補正を試み、その結果、選定青透明薄膜による黄変化補正の可能性が見出された。
キーワード 視界黄変化、加齢、色変化、シミュレーション、色度図
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(2), 113/122, 1998


鄭 明姫、田村 照子

Changes in Rates of Regional Evaporation from the Human Body with Changes in Air Temperature and Their Modification by Postures

Myung-hee CHUNG, Teruko TAMURA
Faculty of Home Economics, Bunka Women's University

The rate of regional sweating from the human body has been measured by the ventilated capsule method as well as by the method which uses filter paper within a capsule. On the other hand, the evaporimeter was introduced as a method for measuring the rate of evaporation from the skin surface under natural conditions in the open air, the use of which, however, has been restricted only to the horizontal plane. The possibility of application of the evaporimeter to the vertical plane was examined in this study with a simple evaporation box. After confirming the validity of applying the evaporimeter to the vertical plane, the influence of posture change on the rate of regional evaporation from the human body was examined with it. Experimental conditions were air temperatures of 28, 34 and 37℃ and 50% relative humidity. The subjects were 10 female students. Postures of the subjects were sitting and supine. The results were summarized as follows:
(1) The validity of the application of an evaporimeter to the vertical plane was confirmed by a significantly high coefficient of correlation (r = 0.98) between the weight loss from an evaporation box and the rate of evaporation measured with the evaporimeter.
(2) Rates of evaporation from the human body both in the sitting and supine postures were conspicuously increased with the temperature rise.
(3) The distribution of the rate of evaporation was remarkably changed by the posture especially in the sweating zone. In the supine posture, evaporation from the upper parts of the body, forehead, back and loins was supressed and that from the lower extremities was significantly greater than in the sitting posture.

(Received: Nov.15.1997 Accepted:Jan. 6, 1998)
Key words: evaporimeter, regional evaporation rate, sweating, supine, sitting, pressure-sweating reflex

(1) 蒸発面ボックスからの水分蒸発量とエバポリメータの測定値との間には、水平、垂直ともにr=0.98と高い相関が得られ、エバポリメータの垂直面への適用の可能性が示された。
(2) 椅座位、臥位いずれにおいても人体部位別水分蒸散量は、気温上昇に伴い顕著に増大した。
(3) 姿勢の変化による発汗分布の修飾は、発汗域で顕著に認められ、特に、臥位では下肢の部位で多い反面、椅座位ではこの部位が低く、前額、背中、胴部の部位で大となった。
キーワード エバポリメータ、局所水分蒸散量、発汗、臥位、椅座位、圧─発汗反射
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(2), 123/131, 1998


興水 ヒカル、栃原 裕*、岩田 耕一、岩田 利枝、市川 勇
石井 享子、徐 慎之、松井 清彦、倉下 美和子、梶尾 厚子
岡田 幸枝、知念 照子、稲垣 恵子、植竹 真弓、豊岡 由賀
下田 美穂、田中 あゆ子
国立公衆衛生院 *九州芸術工科大学

A Survey on Factors in Indoor Environments of
the Elderly Houses in Urban Areas

National Institute of Public Health, *Kyushu Institute of Design

The recent rapid deterioration in the natural environment in urban areas has changed the human residential environment, and the time people spend in artificial environments is increasing. The elderly seem to be affected more than the young by their living environment. We conducted an investigation to examine and compare the summer and neutral seasons' indoor environments of the "independent" elderly who are able to live by themselves, and of the "bedridden" elderly in Toshima-ku, Tokyo who have to stay indoors all day and be nursed. The survey showed that the thermal environment of the bedridden elderly was more stable than that of the independent elderly. The indoor air quality of the houses for the elderly which was measured in neutral seasons was generally fine. Although the management of indoor thermal environment was suggested to be important.
(Received: Aug. 19. 1997 Accepted: Nov. 20, 1997)
Key words: Indoor thermal environment, Indoor air quality, Settled fungi, Evaluation of thermal environment, Bedridden elderly

キーワード 室内温熱環境、室内空気質、落下真菌、温熱環境評価、寝たきり高齢者
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(2), 132/138, 1998


堀越 哲美*1、垣鍔 直*2、土川 忠浩*3、今井 裕夫*4
*1名古屋工業大学大学院 *2豊田工業高等専門学校
*3岐阜工業高等専門学校 *4今井建築設計所

Investigation on Evaluation and Indication of
Thermal Comfort in Built Environment

Tetsumi HORIKOSHI*1, Naoshi KAKITSUBA*2,
Tadahiro TSUCHIKAWA*3 and Hiroo IMAI*4
*1Nagaya Institute of Technology, *2Toyota National College of Technology,
*3Gifu National College of Technology, *4lmai Architectural Design

The objective of this paper is to clarify the meaning of "Thermal Comfort" in daily living en-vironments and to apply the thermal comfort condition to environmental design by using passive methods in Japan. Two traditional essays were analysed in order to reveral the meaning and usage of words re-lated to the thermal environment. The thermal comfort of ancient Japanese differs from the western con-cept of thermal comfort which means neither hot nor cold and satisfaction with the environment. On the other hand, existing thermal comfort zones were compared with each other. Most of them were based on psychological and physiological responses in the laboratory tests or psychological responses in the field surveys. There are few studies on the thermal comfort concept of Japanese and on occupants' thermal comfort in the daily living environment. It is necessary for the researchers studying thermal comfort to in-vestigate the value concept of the living environment and design criteria for real thermal comfort.
(Received: Sept. 12, 1997 Accepted: Dec. 5, 1997)
Key words: thermal comfort, Iiving environment, comfort chart, passive design, classic essay

キーワード 熱的快適性、生活環境、快適線図、パッシブデザイン、古典随筆
(J.Human and Living Environment), 5(2), 139/146, 1998

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