人間と生活環境 vol.06 No.1


松井 静子

Odor Environment in Houses

Shizuko MATSUI
Narasaho-Jogakuin Junior College

In order to obtain some basic data for odor control in houses, a self administered questionnaire on the odor environment in residential houses and odor consciousness of residents was coducted. The results are as follows. As the most offensive odor, the largest number of the respondents answers, is the odor of cigarette smoking and they want to eliminate it first. The second worst is the odor of garbage. The way how to expel these malodors, most of the respondents, take, is to ventilate the room. Some of them use aromatics in toilets or at the entrance to the house. Young women in their twenties are more sensitive than those in their forties and fifties. On the whole, women are more sensitive to odors than men.
Key words: odor, odor control, house, odor consciousness, questionnaire

キーワード 臭気、住宅、臭気制御、臭気に対する意識、アンケート調査
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(1), 4/12, 1998


伊香賀 俊治

Living Environment and Global Environment
─Environmental Impact of Buildings and Its Assessment Methods─

Toshiharu IKAGA
Department of Building and Civil Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo

The environmental impact of buildings and its recent assessment methods are outlined mainly with reference to the global warming issue. Case studies on an office building are included in a discussion on how to improve the indor environment while reducing the environmental burden, and how to reduce life cycle CO2 emissions causing the global warming.
Key words: sustainable, global warming, indoor environment, life cycle assessment, life cycle CO2

キーワード 持続可能性、地球温暖化、室内環境、ライフサイクルアセスメント、ライフサイクルCO2
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(1), 13/18, 1998


長田 泰公

Noise Exposure in Female Junior College Students in Their Daily Life, Especially during the Commuting Traffic by Trains

Yasutaka OSADA
Consultant of the National Institute of Public Health

Noise exposure was determined every 10 minutes during 24 hours of daily life in 6 students of a female junior college. The average exposure level was 68 dB in equivalent sound level (LAeq). By applying the noise levels of each activity to the results of a time study of 330 students, the average whole day level of exposure was estimated to be 67 dB. This level was close to the standard limit, 70 dB, for preventing noise induced hearing loss, recommended by USEPA. The highest level in their daily exposure appeared during commuting, especially by train. It was higher than 75dB. Noise levels in subway trains and in transfer stations were higher than in surface trains. Sound levels in the headphones worn by students listening to music while commuting were determined and were found to be 90-100 dB. These levels were very high and their allowable time limit per day was less than 2 hours according to the occupational standard.
(Received June 16, 1998 Accepted Aug. 10, 1998)
Key words: noise exposure, daily life, train commuting, female students, headphone

キーワード 騒音暴露、電車通学、女性学生、ヘッドホン
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(1), 19/24, 1998


鄭 明姫、田村 照子

The Influence of Arm and Leg Exercises in Different Postures
on Thermal Physiological Responses (Part 1)

─Responses in Heart Rate, Rectal Temperature and Mean Skin Temperature─

Myung-hee CHUNG, Teruko TAMURA
Faculty of Home Economics, Bunka Women's University

Physiological responses of the human body for four different exercises were examined in this study. Exercises consisted of arm and leg exercises in the supine and sitting postures. Ten untrained female subjects performed 15 minutes of exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen intake (VO2Pmax), which of each subject for each kind of exercise was decided by use of a bicycle ergometer in each exercise condition. Exercises were carried out in a climatic chamber under environmental conditions of 30℃ and 50% relative humidity. Metabolic rate (MR), Heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre) and mean skin temperature (Tsk) during exercise were measured. It was found that VO2Pmax in the sitting posture was 20〜24% higher than that in the supine posture, and VO2Pmax for the leg exercise was 25〜30% higher than that for the arm exercise. The results between physiological responses and MR during exercises were summarized as follows:
(1) HR showed an almost linear relationship with MR irrespective of the kind of exercise.
(2) Tre increased with MR as well with as HR with an exceptional tendency to rise during the supine leg exercise.
(3) Changes in Tsk had no relationship to MR. The reason for this will be the focus of the following study.

(Received April 20, 1998 Accepted Aug. 5, 1998)
Key words: supine posture, sitting posture, arm exercise, leg exercise, metabolic rate, heart rate, rectal temperature, mean skin temperature

(1) 心拍数や運動姿勢、運動部位に関係なく各負荷代謝量と高い相関を示すが、同代謝量であれば、椅座位が仰臥位よりやや大になる傾向が示された。
(2) 直腸温は心拍数と同様の傾向を示したが、運動筋の局所熱産生の影響をうけ、下肢運動により上昇する傾向がみられた。
(3) 平均皮膚温は負荷代謝量との関係が殆ど認められなかった。
キーワード 仰臥位、椅座位、上肢運動、下肢運動、代謝量、心拍数、直腸温、皮膚温
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(1), 25/32, 1998


呉 邵忠、中村 昭夫、森田 矢次郎

Thermal Engineering Study on Thermal Stimulation Caused by Moxibustion
(2nd Report─Investigation of the Factors Influencing Moxa Smoldering─)

Shaozhong WU, Akio NAKAMURA and Yajiro MORITA
Faculty of Engineering, Takushoku University

Moxibustion is a traditional method to cause intercutaneous thermal stimulation onto the human body by moxa smoldering. The thermal stimulation is greatly affected by the transient temperature of smoldering moxa. Until now published studies on the transient temperature of smoldering moxa have been imperfect in that the many influencing factors have not been sufficiently noticed. As part of a thermal engineering study on thermal stimulation caused by moxibustion, the relationship between the transient temperature of smoldering moxa and the influencing factors is investigated. The results are as follows.
(1) The transient temperature of smoldering moxa not only related to the weight of the moxa and its density, but also to its size.
(2) The transient temperature of smoldering moxa is affected by environmental factors (humidity, temperature and air flow).
(3) For the purpose of realizing a desired transient thermal stimulation onto the human body, the mere adjustment of the weight, density, and size or shape of the moxa before smoldering, will be only an insufficient means to meet our expectation.

(Received July: 2, 1998; Accepted: Nov. 4, 1998)
Key words: Moxibustion, Moxa, Thermal stimulation, Influencing factors

(1) 艾の燃焼温度変化特性は艾の重さと密度に関係するほか、艾の寸法との関係もある。
(2) 環境温度、湿度と空気の流れは艾の燃焼温度特性変化に影響を及ぼす。
(3) 灸が人間に与える温熱刺激の時間的変化特性を希望通りに実現しようとすると、燻焼前の艾の重さ、密度、寸法、形状を調整するだけでは不確実な結果しか期待できない。
キーワード 灸療法、艾、温熱刺激、影響因子
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(1), 33/39, 1998

─第一報 試験的オフィス例─

高橋 美加、栃原 裕*、永井 由美子**、輿水 ヒカル、池田 耕一、岩田 利枝、市川 勇
国立公衆衛生院 *九州芸術工科大学 **大阪教育大学

Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in an Office Room
with a Radiant Cooling System

─Part 1. This-System-Maker's Offices─

Koichi IKEDA, Toshie IWATA and Isamu ICHIKAWA
National Institute of Public Health, *Kyushu Institute of Design, **Osaka Kyoiku University

In the maker's office space with a multi-board radiant cooling system, subjective response, e.g. thermal comfort, thermal sensation etc., and skin temperature of occupants were measured as well as thermal conditions, e.g. air temperature, air humidity, etc. We focused on the air temperature to evaluate the thermal condition, because air temperature is decreased by the multi-board type of radiant cooling system more than by the single-board type. It was shown that a radiant cooling system is suitable to use in an office and that mechanical ventilation is recommended to use together with a radiant cooling system.
(Received June 16, 1998, Accepted Nov. 5, 1998)
Key words: radiant cooling, thermal comfort, thermal sensation vote, skin temperature, office

キーワード 放射冷房、快適感、温冷感、皮膚温、オフィス
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(1), 40/45, 1998

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