人間と生活環境 vol.06 No.2


横山 真太郎

Odors─Fundamental Knowlegde of Physiological
Mechanism and Its Modeling

Graduate School of Engineering Science, Hokkaido University

This paper reviews the fundamental aspects of the physiological olfactory mechanism and its modeling in order to develop an evaluation and control system for odors in daily life. The meanings of odors, the anatomy of olfactry receptor, the olfactry receptor and perception mechanism, and the properties of odor substances are described. In addition several considerations on the relationship between fundamental olfactory mechanism theories and our experimental results obtained by using odor sensors and a neural network system were introduced.
Key words: odor, olfactory receptor, perception mechanism, properties of odors

キーワード 臭気、嗅覚受容器、嗅覚知覚機構、ニオイ分子特性
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(2), 71/75, 1999


村川 三郎

Water and Life

Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University

This paper deals with daily activities and the use of water, factors in water consumption and the estimation of water consumption. The frequency of various daily activities in a day is shown. In particular, patterns of excretion are compared to other daily activities. And on the basis of the results of an experiment on showering, two were selected from among six types of shower heads on the basis of the amount of hot water used, feeling, and energy saving effectiveness without sacrificing pleasantness. To clarify factors in home water use, the replies to a questionnaire were subjected to multivariate analysis. The factors affecting the amount of water used and consciousness of the need to save water are shown analyzed by the Quantity Theory Cluster I and II. And, on the basis of the survey data, the estimate of the amount of water used is done by regression analysis of frequency of use for the various purposes applied to the estimate equation and classified and shown as load estimate conditions.
Key words: Daily activities, factors in water use, amount of water used, houses, multivariate analysis

キーワード 生活行為、水使用要因、使用水量、住宅、多変量解析
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(2), 76/84, 1999


田中 正敏

Water and Human Beings─from the Physiological Viewpoint─

Masatoshi TANAKA
Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, School
of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University

Water is essential for humans to preserve life. It is possible for human beings to survive with drinking water for three or four weeks, even if they take no food. There are various relations between human beings and water. Humans take by the mouth about 2,200ml of water a day. It is absorbed into the intestines, and various substances in the water are dissolved. The quantity of water a day which humans physiologically need is about 1,500ml. Water in the body, that is, body fluids is about 50〜70% of body weight. As water is excreted by sweating and insensible perspiration, urination, etc. water balance in the body is maintained by the intake of water, by drinking water, etc. Many metabolisms are carried out mainly with water. It becomes the medium of digestion and absorption of food, secretion of hormones, and thermoregulation, such as sweating, etc. Water in the body is described herein as to its existence, its action, water imbalance in absorption and excretion by the body, and its threat to health, etc., from the physiological viewpoint.
Key words: body fluid, water balance, urination, dehydration, edema

キーワード 体液、水分平衡、尿排泄、脱水、浮腫
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(2), 85/91, 1999


吉永 淳

Living Environment and Global Environment
Global Lead Pollution and Source of Lead in Japanese

Jun Yoshinaga
Institute of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo

Global environmental pollution with lead has been recognized in recent decades. Although the pollution level has been decreasing since the worldwide regulation of leaded gasoline, the present environmental lead level is still higher than the background level by a factor of 100. The widespread contamination impedes the accurate evaluation of the human health effect of low-level lead exposure, and therefore effort has to be directed at decreasing human lead exposure as much as possible even though the present exposure level is assumed to be low enough in terms of current standards. To this end, the source(s) of lead in living environment has to be identified.
Key words: lead, global pollution, living environment, source identification

 鉛の間今日負荷量は、地球規模で見ても、あるいは日本においても、減少してきている、それにともないヒトの鉛負荷量も減少し、現在では、たとえばアメリカCDCaction levelに比較すれば、深刻なレベルにはない。ただし、地球んの隅々まで及んでしまった人為起源鉛の環境負荷のために、低レベル鉛暴露による人体影響について評価しきれていない。したがってヒト鉛負荷量は可能な限り低く抑える必要があり、そのためにも現代日本人の鉛暴露源を明らかにしておく必要がある。食物、大気以外にも生活環境の中にある鉛源を明らかにするとともに、子宮内での暴露についても考えていく必要を指摘した。
キーワード 鉛、地球規模汚染、生活環境、汚染期限同定
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(2), 92/97, 1999


持田 徹*、長野 克則*、嶋倉 一實*、桑原 浩平*、中谷 貴弘**、松永 和彦***
*北海道大学大学院  **札幌市役所  ***いすゞ自動車(株)

Characteristics of Convective Heat Transfer of Thermal Manikin
Exposed in Air Flow from Front.

Tohru MOCHIDA*, Katsunori NAGANO*, Kazumi SHIMAKURA*
Kouhei KUWABARA*, Takahiro NAKATANI** and Kazuhiko MATSUNAGA***
*Graduate School of Hokkaido University, **Sapporo City Hall, ***Isuzu Motors Ltd.

In order to obtain the mean and the local convective heat transfer coefficients for the human body, experiments were performed with a thermally-controlled naked manikin in sitting and standing postures. The experiments were carried out in a test chamber in the normal temperature range. The air movement observed was between still air and 1.1 m/s. By arranging the present experimental data, the following formulas concerning the mean convective heat transfer coefficient hc of an unclothed manikin were derived as a function of air movement V.
hc = 2.82 + 6.35V0.848 for sitting position, hc = 10.14V0.431 for standing position
The two formulas obtained above agree partially with the formulas proposed by Ishigaki et al. and Ichihara et al.
(Received May 22, 1998: Accepted March 31. 1999)
Key words: human body, naked-thermal manikin, mean convective heat transfer coefficients, local convective heat transfer coefficient.

椅座時:hc=2.82+6.35V0.848  立位時:hc=10.14V0.431
キーワード 人体、サーマルマネキン、裸体、平均対流熱伝達率、局所対流熱伝達率
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(2), 98/103, 1999


吉野 博、楼 海紅

Survey on Winter Indoor Temperature and Humidity in
Multi-Family Houses in Shanghai

Hiroshi Yoshino and Haihong Lou
Department of Architecture & Building Science, Graduate School of Engineering,
Tohoku University 06, Aoba, Aramaki-aza, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan

The indoor thermal environment of RC multi-family houses in Shanghai was investigated for about 100 apartments in winter of the 1997 fiscal year by means of a questionnaire and liquid crystal thermometers. Also the temperature and humidity of 6 houses were mearsured using small data loggers with temperature and humidity sensors. The findings are as follows: 1) The saturation level of the air-conditioners for space heating is 45%, 2) The room temperature of the apartments is around 20℃ when the room is heated but many apartments are not heated, 3)The room temperature of apartments without space heating is around 15℃ and was stable during the mearsurement period due to the thermal capacity of the concrete structure.
(Received April14, 1999: Accepted June 14, 1999)
Key words: Multi-Family Houses, Indoor Thermal Environment, Questionnaire Survey, Field Survey

キーワード 集合住宅、室内温熱環境、アンケート調査、実測調査
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(2), 104/110, 1999


郡 逸平

Evaluation of Thermal Environment in a Vehicle by Means of SET*

Itsuhei Kohri
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation

This paper describes a method for evaluating the thermal environment in a vehicle compartment where the effects of temperature, air velocity and radiation are complex. The new method suggested here consists of several processes: measurement using a thermal mannequin, simulation of human thermoregulation, prediction of the physiological quanties calculation of the SET* and estimation of thermal sensation. In particular, two kinds of thermal mannequins have been introduced for different purposes-one is available for detailed analysis and the other for instant evaluation to apply to new car development. Comparing the estimated results with the actual sensation felt by subjects, this method has proved practical enough to evaluate the thermal environment in a vehicle compartment.
(Received May 18, 1998: Accepted Nov. 16, 1998)
(recerved May 18, 1998: Accepted Nov. 16, 1998)
Key words: Thermal mannequin, Human thermoregulation model, SET*, Thermal sensation, Vehicle compartment

キーワード サーマルマネキン、体温調節モデル、SET*、温感申告、自動車室内
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(2), 111/120, 1999


根本 直樹

Circumstances of the Truck Cabin and Related Subjects

Hino Motor Sales, Ltd.

This paper describes the Truck Cabin surroundings mainly its functions through its short hist ory and also the development of air-conditioning for heavy duty truck cabs. Truck cabs are now equipped at least as luxuriously as most passenger cars.
This is as it should be, because trucks are generally operated more continuously and for longer periods than passenger cars for private use.
Although most people are accustomed to seeing trucks on the street, they are unlikely to know much about them or refer to them in conversation.
In the past, air-conditioning for individual closed rooms was apt to be concerned with private space only. But at present, we, both engineers and operators of trucks, need to carefully consider the surroundings of the working vehicles operate and their relation to it, and also anticipated future improvement in truck cabs.
(recerved Sept 1, 1998: Accepted Dec. 24, 1998)
Key words: Trucks, Cabin , Air-conditioning, Safety, Maneuvering

キーワード トラック、キャビン、キャブ、空調(装置)、安全、運用(車両の)
(J.Human and Living Environment), 6(2), 121/127, 1999